Crust colour in this case has been measured by tristimulus. This can measure the colour quality of the material and express it as the amount of red-green (a* value), blue-yellow  (b* value) or its lightness (L*value). A lower L* value indicates in this case a darker crust.

In this application some of the normal flour has been replaced with a small amount of enzyme active flour that Muntons name Diax flour. An L* value of about 56 is the desired final crust colour. With the Diax substitution the final crust colour is achieved 2 minutes quicker compared to the normal mix. This equates in our case to a 17% saving in carbon.

Addition of Diax will most likely not reduce bake time for larger loaves because they take longer to complete baking internally by which time crust colour is already developed sufficiently. A similar reduction in bake time is illustrated below for ‘no time’ dough rolls.


“No Time” Dough Rolls Scaled at 50g


In the Muntons trial bakery using a Tom Chandley oven that can turn out 8228 rolls per day there are considerable savings in energy of over £6500 per year by ingredient substitution. The reduced bake time could of course be used to increase throughput to reduce unit cost. It simply illustrates that this is an interesting area for consideration.

Together with an improved carbon footprint claim this area of recipe development is certainly one which deserves attention and may assist customers achieve market advantage with cost reduction, increased throughput or green claims on product labels.